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Conflict analysis gives guidelines for conflict resolution, which has been thoroughly studied and received widespread interest. Three-way conflict analysis research has achieved remarkable results and has been extended to Pythagorean fuzzy information systems because the three-way decision coincides with three attitudes of agents on issues, where the positive and negative degrees of agents are depicted by the membership and non-membership degrees. However, agent’s opinions on issues must not be expressed only by real numbers, and the form of ranges can be used. Interval-valued Pythagorean fuzzy sets allow the membership and non-membership degrees of a given set to have interval values, which can effectively handle this problem. This work analyzes a three-way conflict analysis based on interval-valued Pythagorean fuzzy information systems. First, we introduce the concept of interval-valued Pythagorean fuzzy information systems and illustrate how to divide positive, neutral, and negative alliances by the measurement function and thresholds. Then, we focus on a three-way conflict analysis based on prospect theory by considering the subjective risk attitude and preference of decision-makers. Finally, we further investigate three-way conflict analysis based on interval-valued Pythagorean fuzzy sets and prospect theory with group decision theory, where the outcome matrices are provided by multiple experts. Several examples of software development project team conflicts are employed to illustrate the process of conducting a three-way conflict analysis based on interval-valued Pythagorean fuzzy information systems and prospect theory. The comparative analysis is utilized to show the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed three-way conflict analysis approach compared with other models and methods.
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