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Microorganisms are widely distributed in the human daily living environment. They play an essential role in environmental pollution control, disease prevention and treatment, and food and drug production. The analysis of microorganisms is essential for making full use of different microorganisms. The conventional analysis methods are laborious and time-consuming. Therefore, the automatic image analysis based on artificial neural networks is introduced to optimize it. However, the automatic microorganism image analysis faces many challenges, such as the requirement of a robust algorithm caused by various application occasions, insignificant features and easy under-segmentation caused by the image characteristic, and various analysis tasks. Therefore, we conduct this review to comprehensively discuss the characteristics of microorganism image analysis based on artificial neural networks. In this review, the background and motivation are introduced first. Then, the development of artificial neural networks and representative networks are presented. After that, the papers related to microorganism image analysis based on classical and deep neural networks are reviewed from the perspectives of different tasks. In the end, the methodology analysis and potential direction are discussed.
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