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The use of the iris and periocular region as biometric traits has been extensively investigated, mainly due to the singularity of the iris features and the use of the periocular region when the image resolution is not sufficient to extract iris information. In addition to providing information about an individual’s identity, features extracted from these traits can also be explored to obtain other information such as the individual’s gender, the influence of drug use, the use of contact lenses, spoofing, among others. This work presents a survey of the databases created for ocular recognition, detailing their protocols and how their images were acquired. We also describe and discuss the most popular ocular recognition competitions (contests), highlighting the submitted algorithms that achieved the best results using only iris trait and also fusing iris and periocular region information. Finally, we describe some relevant works applying deep learning techniques to ocular recognition and point out new challenges and future directions. Considering that there are a large number of ocular databases, and each one is usually designed for a specific problem, we believe this survey can provide a broad overview of the challenges in ocular biometrics.
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