# Confusion Matrix and Cyber crime

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# What is confusion matrix??

A confusion matrix is a technique for summarizing the performance of a classification algorithm. A confusion matrix is a summary of prediction results on a classification problem.

The number of correct and incorrect predictions are summarized with count values and broken down by each class. This is the key to the confusion matrix.It gives you insight not only into the errors being made by your classifier but more importantly the types of errors that are being made.

It is of two dimensions having actual and predicted parameters.

# 👉FOUR OUTCOMES OF CONFUSION MATRIX

The confusion matrix is a two by two table that contains four outcomes produced by a binary classifier. In this table with two rows and two columns that reports the number of false positives, false negatives, true positives, and true negatives.

• TP: True Positive: Predicted values correctly predicted as actual positive
• FP: Predicted values incorrectly predicted an actual positive. i.e., Negative values predicted as positive
• FN: False Negative: Positive values predicted as negative
• TN: True Negative: Predicted values correctly predicted as an actual negative

You can compute the accuracy test from the confusion matrix:

• The precision is directly proportional to the number of correctly predicted cases that turned out to be positive. It can be calculated by the below equation –

It is the portion of values that are correctly identified as positive by the model. It is also termed as True Positive Rate or Sensitivity.

F-1 Score: It is the harmonic mean of Precision and Recall. It means that if we were to compare two models, then this metric will suppress the extreme values and consider both False Positives and False Negatives at the same time.

# need of Confusion matrix?

• It provides insight not only the errors which are made by a classifier but also errors that are being made.
• Each row of the confusion matrix represents the instances of the actual class.
• It shows how any classification model is confused when it makes predictions.
• Confusion matrix not only gives you insight into the errors being made by your classifier but also types of errors that are being made.
• This breakdown helps you to overcomes the limitation of using classification accuracy alone.
• Every column of the confusion matrix represents the instances of that predicted class.

# What is cyber crime?

Cybercrime is criminal activity that either targets or uses a computer, a computer network or a networked device. Most, but not all, cybercrime is committed by cybercriminals or hackers who want to make money. Cybercrime is carried out by individuals or organizations.Some cybercriminals are organized, use advanced techniques and are highly technically skilled. Others are novice hackers.Rarely, cybercrime aims to damage computers for reasons other than profit. These could be political or personal.

# Types of cybercrime

Here are some specific examples of the different types of cybercrime:

• Email and internet fraud.
• Identity fraud (where personal information is stolen and used).
• Theft of financial or card payment data.
• Theft and sale of corporate data.

Causes of cyber crime

• Criminal activity that targets
• Criminal activity that uses computers to commit other crimes.

# How to protect yourself against cybercrime

1. Keep software and operating system updated

2. Use anti-virus software and keep it updated

3. Use Strong password

4. Never open attachments in spam emails

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# — >Shashank Bansal

AI/ML

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